Asynchronous Operations: Await As An Expression

This functionality requires HHVM 4.6 or later.

To strike a balance between flexibility, latency, and performance, we require that the awaits only appear in unconditionally consumed expression positions. This means that from the closest statement, the result of the await must be used under all non-throwing cases. This is important because all awaits for a statement will run together, we don't want to over-run code if its result might not be utilized.

All awaits within the same statement will execute concurrently (similar to Tuple\from_async).

Examples

$sum =
  await x_async() +      // yes!
  await y_async();       // yes!
$tuple = tuple(
  await foo_async(),     // yes!
  42,
);
$result = foo(
  await bar_async(),     // yes!
  await baz_async(),     // yes!
);
if (await x_async()) {   // yes!
  // Conditional but seperate statement
  await y_async();       // yes!
}
$x =
  await x_async() &&     // yes!
  // Conditional expression
  await y_async();       // no!
$y = await x_async()     // yes!
  ? await y_async()      // no!
  : await z_async();     // no!
$x = await async {       // yes!
  await x_async();       // yes!
}

You can read more on the exhaustive list of allowed positions in the specification.

Order-of-execution

Similar to other aspects of await, we do not guarantee an order of execution of the expressions within a statement that contains await, but you should assume it could be significantly different than if the await wasn't present. If you want stronger guarantees over order-of-execution, separate awaits into their own statements.

In this example, you should make no assumptions about the order in which a_async(), b(), c_async() or d() are executed, but you can assume that both await'ed functions (a_async() and c_async()) will be concurrently awaited.

$x = foo(
  await a_async(),
  b(),
  await c_async(),
  d(),
);

Limitations

To further help protect against depending on order-of-execution, we've banned assignment or updating variables as-an-expression for statements that contain an await. You can read the full spec for a complete list of position we allow updating local variables in statements that contain await.

// Yes!
$x = await x_async();
// No, assignment as an expression
await foo_async($x = 42);
// No, we even disallow separate assignment
(await bar_async()) + ($x = 42);     
// Yes!   
$x = f(inout $y, await x_async());
// Yes, embedded call w/ inout is considered an expression
await bar_async(baz(inout $x));

Hack doesn't currently support nested awaits, but might add support for this in the future.

$x = await foo_async(await bar_async()); // no!